5 Simple Safe Driving Tips You’ve Probably Already Forgotten

For many of us, hopping into the car and driving to work is so routine, we barely think about it.

It’s a daily habit we can probably do in our sleep (but please don’t!). It has become so mundane that many forget the tiny steps we need to take to keep us safe on the road.

In this post, let’s look into often overlooked ways we can keep safe on the road with defensive and smart driving techniques.

Remember, a mistake on the road can have devastating consequences so take these tips to heart.

Have a good idea of where you are going

With a lot of navigation apps and cars with built-in GPS, it’s easy to hop on a car without knowing where you are going.

After all the apps on our phone or dashboard computers in every car can navigate our every turn.

For extra safety, if you’re going to a place you’ve never driven to before, it’s important to take a few minutes to study your map before you hit the road.

Having a general idea of where you are headed can really boost your confidence when driving and help you make snappy decisions when needed.

Don’t be left hanging when your phone or on-board GPS goes haywire!

Obey speed limits

Speed limits are carefully set to prevent accidents and keep everyone on the road safe. While it can be tempting to just floor the accelerator on an empty street, the risk to life and limb IS NOT WORTH IT.

Speed limits are determined not by guesswork but by a lot of analysis and statistics. When authorities set speed limits, they are actually decreasing the number of accident-prone areas. 

To make it easy to obey speed limits and traffic rules in general, you can make it a habit to leave early. 

Leaving early means your driving doesn’t have to feel like a race against time and you won’t feel like speed limits are working against you.

Stop drowsy driving

Sleepy? Don’t drive. 

Yawning, struggling to keep your eyes open, drifting from your lane, and having a hard time remembering things or making decisions are all signs that you’re too tired or to sleepy to still be behind the wheel.

The best fix is to find a place where you can nap for 30 minutes or so. This shouldn’t be a problem if you left early or don’t have anything coming up.

Being sleepy behind the wheel isn’t just about having a bad night’s sleep, driving before dawn, or being in the road late at night. If you’re coming from a day at the beach or the park, sitting in the car after a tiring day will definitely leave you sleepy.

If you have somewhere to be, remember your safety is more important than the occasional tardiness. Better be safe than not make it at all!

Review Your Basic Car Safety

Just quickly remember the following fundamental tips for care safety:

  1. Use turn signals 
  2. Wear seatbelts
  3. Turn your lights on in heavy rain or low visibility conditions
  4. Don’t go out unnecessarily during inclement weather
  5. Learn to let go; road rage will help no one

Keep your car in road-worthy condition

Going to a car shop isn’t always easy. It takes up your precious time and there’s the actual cost of the work that needs to be done.

A properly maintained vehicle is road-worthy and safer versus one that has missed several mechanic check-ups already.

In a dive into 2005-2007 data by the U.S. Department of Transportation, they discovered that 44,000 vehicular accidents were caused by faulty vehicles. Issues with tires, wheels, and brakes accounted for over 25,000 of the incidents. 

With tools like EverDrive from AI Parts, drivers will soon have a more data-driven look into their vehicle’s condition.

Using advanced predictive models for wear and tear, the platform from AI Parts can make it easier for you to be more intuitive in maintaining your car. With EverDrive, you will know what and when parts will need to be replaced. 

We hope you had a long good look at the items on the list. Every good driver knows that above all, his or her safety, along with the passengers, and everyone sharing the road is the most important thing of all.

On your next long trip and as you return to your “normal” routines as lockdowns start to ease up, be sure to keep these tips in mind.

The Future of Car Maintenance with AI Parts Lead Developer Francesco Tapparo

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (October 29, 2020) – Parma, Italy – Francesco Tapparo, Software Developer at AI Parts, started out in the academe before making a move towards software development. He has since redirected his aptitude in mathematics into exploring brand-new, life-changing ways AI can affect the way we live our lives.

Today, he let us in on his work for the AI Parts team and his vision for a future with AI.

AI is the Future

“AI is a field rich in interesting and useful applications. We are getting near real-time automatic translation (think Star Trek) but humbler uses like in mop machines are making them more adapted to, for example, for an elderly home. “ 

Mr. Tapparo thinks highly of how AI can affect the future. 

“Recently I discovered software combining home automation and AI technologies in order to help disabled people. In short, the sky’s the limit for useful and exciting AI apps.”

Unlocking New Opportunities for the Multi-Billion Dollar Automotive Repair Industry

Francesco helps AI Parts build a suite of applications focused on bringing machine learning and AI-enabled technology to the automotive maintenance industry. 

He explains EverDrive, one of the core products of his team:

“EverDrive’s goal is to warn the user in advance when a car component is about to reach the end of its service life. This date is calculated by artificial intelligence using parameters like driving style, car model, the average temperature where the user lives, and so on.”

A sample of EverDrive’s technology can be tested through a widget on the AI Parts website.

But AI Parts’s technology doesn’t stop at helping consumers. 

Another product is focused on improving the services offered by car repair shops. 

“With TechPro, car repair shop owners can use artificial intelligence to assist the mechanics in choosing the best replacement parts for a car. This will save both the customer and the repair shop a lot of time and it will shrink error rate and compatibility issues.”

The impact of TechPro can be critical. It will improve customer experience by providing auto shop managers with faster, more reliable services with a significant impact on inventory management, an important part of any auto repair shop business. 

Last but definitely not least, Francesco is also leading the way in the development of SaidText. SaidText upgrades the voice memo experience by “[processing] vocal messages and automatically [detecting] urgent ones, in order to assist the physician in taking care first of the patients needing immediate attention.” 

This has become increasingly relevant as the global pandemic has created an even more demanding working environment for doctors and other healthcare providers who are the intended users of the product.

Huge Potential

Francesco believes in the future immensely transformed by AI. 

“AI can really have a big impact on people’s life: Think of disabled people who are able to communicate through vocal commands, AI  being able to detect suspicious behavior at airports or, even more crucial, projects using AI to fight COVID-19.”

And the impact of AI in an often ignored sector like the automotive aftermarket can breathe new life into the industry. 

The way the technology from AI Parts is easy to implement makes it an ideal solution even for smaller car repair shops. It also gives them a chance to continually improve their services, fine-tune their sourcing, and increase satisfaction for customers. 

EverDrive, on the other hand, extends the lifetime of their vehicles by automating proper maintenance. This comes at a time where car sales are dropping and people are paying more attention to extending the service life of existing vehicles due to economic instability. 

Francesco shares: 

“Our software is going to make its small part in making these improvements available to a large number of people. It is nice to work on software able to improve the life of so many people at the same time.”

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Making Life Easier

Francesco also opens up to how AI applications like the one he is building at AI Parts will help people direct their focus on the things that matter the most. 

“Time is becoming more and more a precious resource while the world we live in is increasingly getting more complex. AI can help us to save the time otherwise dedicated to basic tasks and to keep it for us, to stay more with our family, to relax a bit, to focus on our hobbies, or to even become more productive. 

Taking charge of these elementary tasks is similar to do complex calculations by hand: it is possible and can be fun sometimes, but more often than that, there will be a better way to spend our time.”

Follow us on LinkedIn for exciting updates about our development.

5 Reasons Why Preventive Maintenance is Your Bestfriend

Preventive maintenance has already become a standard despite current limitations. Car manuals contain crude projections on when certain parts of a vehicle may breakdown. While often insufficient especially in the long run, these serve as a basic guideline of when owners must seek repair or replacement before a big breakdown.

In complex, heavy-duty machines like automobiles, some parts are designed to take the brunt of the wear and tear. For internal combustion engines, the brake pads, spark plugs, tires, belts, even the engine oil all suffer greater degrees of wear and tear compared to the rest of the vehicle. 

Maintenance that is proactive than reactive can have very many advantages for car owners.

With tools like EverDrive from AI Parts, car owners have a more powerful, more accurate, and a more data-driven way of looking at preventive maintenance. Instead of one-off guides, the platform fine-tunes the preventive maintenance needed for every individual car.

While upfront costs and spending are major reasons why consumers skip preventive maintenance, the benefits far outweigh what may initially look like “extra costs”.

Here are some reasons why you should take your car’s preventive maintenance seriously:

Increase Your Car’s Service Life

One of the best things that come out of predictive maintenance is it can increase your car’s service life.

Preventive maintenance helps spot potential failures before they can even happen, therefore limiting its negative impact on the entire vehicle.

Proper preventive maintenance also means your car is spending more time running in the optimum condition which will decrease the usual impact of regular use.

Ensure the Safety of Your Vehicle

The safety of an automobile is always a top priority. Damaged tires, faulty brakes, or failing lights are serious safety hazards. Preventive maintenance keeps these threats away through early replacements or checks so they don’t fail while the car is running 100 km/h on the highway.

Increase Reliability and Avoid Stressful Breakdowns

Nothing is as annoying as having a vehicle fail when you need it the most. Preventive maintenance is probably also the best way to ascertain your car will be ready to run when you need it the most. 

With proper preventive maintenance, the chances of you frantically calling auto repair shops in the middle of nowhere can be as small as possible.

No Lengthy Downtime

When you carry out preventive maintenance, the car spends most of its time on the road in tip-top shape. It is for this reason that you can prevent major breakdowns that can require days or weeks in the repair shop. 

Aside from that, with EverDrive and Techpro from AI Parts, you can work with your mechanic so that compatible parts are there when you need it. 

If EverDrive tells you you might need to switch out your headlights soon, you can inform your mechanic. Your mechanic, as a response, can use TechPro to identify the best lights from the best suppliers that is 100% compatible with your vehicle.

The decreased downtime just takes out a common source of inconvenience for many car owners.

No Surprise Costs

The biggest deterrent to preventive maintenance is cost. But one thing preventive maintenance effectively combats are surprise big repair bills.

Fix issues while they are small or before they even happen and not when they have become a major headache.

Some examples of car problems that blow out of proportion: 

  1. Not replacing a flickering headlight might lead it to shut off at the most inconvenient time (and cost you a hefty ticket if you get caught!). 
  2. Not replacing your windshield wipers can also cause unsightly scratches that can become irreparable. 
  3. Ignoring the need for replacement air filters can eventually result in a choked, worn down engine. An unmaintained car will also burn more fuel for the same amount of work. 


At this point, you should understand the great value of preventive maintenance. Ensuring safety, cutting down unplanned costs, and lengthening the service life of a car are just some of the big pluses in maintaining your car and not waiting or an issue to arise.

What Makes a Loyal Customer

In the auto repair industry, building a loyal customer base means having return clients that will require constant maintenance. However, the benefits of having loyal, engaged, and convinced customers is beyond the individual. In fact, their entire impact on your success can be hard to measure. 

Aside from the business from loyal customers, these customers can also become organic advocates for your business. They can post reviews online recommending your business, mention you to friends or family, and become free, but very powerful word-of-mouth marketers. 

So how can you create this kind of customer that can bring in so much value and business to your repair shop? On this list, we look at the different ways you can “make” a loyal customer out of every new one that walks in your door.

Keep in Touch

This is high up on this list because many car shop owners tend to just let customers go once the service has been rendered and payments have been settled. At this point in time, auto repair shops should treat the contact information they collect from clients like gold. 

Try to keep in touch by:

  1. Checking in after 3-5 days since the service just to make sure everything is doing well.
  2. Enrolling them to an e-mailing list where you can send newsletters, car care tips, special offers, etc. twice or thrice a month. 
  3. You can also invite them to like your social media pages where you post updates twice or thrice a week. 

Aside from showing customers you care, the above activities can really maintain a level of brand awareness that lasts. 

A customer might just check-in for a diagnostic test once but by reaching out and giving them important information (that is never obtrusive!), they will be able to remember your name.

Always be respectful in these interactions. Don’t force customers to respond and don’t message them too often. Also, ask for their consent when using their information for marketing materials and give them a quick option to opt-out of the messages such as installing a small unsubscribe link in your e-mails.

Show Impactful Honesty

Unfortunately, auto repair shops are on the receiving end of a lot of skepticism and mistrust. So the best way for you to counter this is to make it a point to show your shop’s honesty.

On the previous post on our blog here, we suggested creating an honesty statement or policy. This can be displayed at your car shop or in a place of pride that customers can readily see. 

This is a great way to be upfront about your serious commitment to providing honest service. 

Another thing you can do is to demonstrate your honesty by giving them all their options, even those that might make them spend less on your business.

Especially during these uncertain times, money can be quite a challenge. By sincerely offering customs options that will save them money, they will know you are on their side and you will make it hard to forget your business. 

Also, avoid talking negatively about the car repair industry. Trying to destroy the reputation of other car shops is just welcoming negativity in your conversation. As an alternative, focus on the things you are doing differently to ensure honesty is a top policy at your establishment.

Rewards Program

Rewarding customers that repeatedly avail of services (such as 20% off on you next visit) or those that bring in new business will definitely strengthen brand loyalty. These “treats” can really boost the positive experience of clients. 

And if the new clientele experience great service and you follow all the advice on this list, you can be unlocking another batch of referrals. Eventually, the ball will just keep rolling for your business.

Participate in the Community 

One thing many small businesses like auto repair shops miss is their opportunity to become such an important part of their community. Simple gestures like hosting a workshop or small events can be a great way to meet people, build a positive image, and leave a mark in the community. 

Of course, there are many considerations (like budget, effort, and even post-pandemic safety) for these kinds of events but let this be a starting point for other ideas on how your auto repair shop can help your community. 


To look at millennial behavior is a great way to find ways to improve your business. After all, they have already outpaced the boomers in the number of licensed drivers worldwide. 

And as millennials grew up along with rapid technological innovations, they expect the same tech-savvy quality from your business.

Technology attracts customers, builds trust and it lets them know their provider is using the best of what’s available. They can also reap amazing benefits for businesses. 

At AI Parts, we create technology that safeguards your businesses from low-quality parts and suppliers, incompatibility issues, and other risks associated with aftermarket parts sourcing. Our auto repair shop software uses artificial intelligence to collect data from experts, the community, and other sources to direct you to the best, most compatible car parts for clients. It can also flag errors before they even happen.

Techpro exists in the same platform as Everdrive which car owners can use for preventive maintenance and lets your clients know when a part is about to breakdown and a trip to a mechanic is in order.

The vision is that all these technologies work together to automate the car maintenance experience of car owners as well as maintenance providers. 

So there you have it, FIVE awesome ways your business can build a loyal following. 

And as mentioned in the first paragraph, loyal customers that return to your shop impact your business not just through their spending at every visit. 

The word-of-mouth marketing they do, the brand loyalty they show online through posts, and even the morale boost of your business from having such a faithful following is difficult to price. Two things, however, are for sure: the impact of a loyal customer base is MASSIVE and your business should enjoy all of it. 

Managing Inventory in an Auto Repair Shop

Inventory in a car shop is an important part of the business. It affects how capital is managed, the operations, and even the quality of the services a car shop is able to provide.

Good inventory management should show how suited your inventory is to the demand of your customers, the quality of the parts kept in the store, as well as minimizing stagnant inventory. It should also support high-efficiency operations.

In this post, we look at top ways to improve inventory management in an auto repair shop. These steps are easy to follow, will require more effort than money to implement, and it should lead to results for your business. 

Create a System

It can be quite tempting to just let inventory take care of itself. Once supply is delivered, it will eventually be consumed, right? While this may seem reasonable when starting out, this process can also be easily outgrown.

One of your top priorities should be to create a system or guidelines to follow. Don’t forget to include:

  1. Checking all deliveries to make sure they match the delivery receipts. Suppliers can make mistakes so spotting it early on just makes everything easier. Check that the right supplies arrive in the right quantity. 
  2. Create designated storage locations for everything. This keeps re-stocking and the use of existing supply easy. And if customers can see a neat inventory, they’d definitely appreciate it. It’s reassuring to see the car parts they are purchasing appear taken care of, instead of being snatched out of an unkempt pile. In a highly competitive business, these things matter.  
  3. Always record movement. Implement a way of recording the movement of inventory. This can be as simple as a manual logbook but automated systems should be easy to implement even in smaller shops. With a robust recording system, the missing stock will be very easy to trace back and a logbook is great to check how things are moving along. 
  4. Back-up your information, always. Find a way to make sure you preserve a record of your inventory, especially when doing it through a computer. Using cloud-based software (like Google Drive) versus using local files makes sure you get to keep your records even if your computer breaks or go missing. This will save you the headache and there are some free options available out there.
  5. Schedule a periodic check. Once-a-month or whatever is best for you, go through all your inventory and make sure everything is accounted for. Also, check your areas for improvement. Now that you have a system for inventory, it should be possible for you to take a step back and look at the big picture which will help identify weak areas in your strategy and make changes right away. 

Remember, inventory management is a marathon not a sprint so making a process that is sustainable is important. Don’t overcomplicate it but keep the discipline to stick to the process. 

ABC Analysis

For many auto repair shops, having so many different items on stock means being able to service more customer needs on-the-spot. This also means a growing inventory that can be very challenging to manage. This is where ABC analysis can help.

ABC analysis is a tried and tested inventory assessment method and it simplifies how you react to restocking and managing your in-store supply. You can start doing this by separating your inventory into the following categories: 

CATEGORY A: Items that are in very high demand and may be critical to your business (for example: engine oils, filters, etc). This usually makes up to 20% of your entire inventory but up to 70% of sales.

CATEGORY B: Items that are in demand but not as important in group A. These are mid-range items that also add value to your business but not just in the previous category’s level (for example: windshield wipers, headlight replacement bulbs). 

CATEGORY C: Items here are marginally important. These are nice-to-haves but may have minimal demand and impact to your business. 

Once you’ve categorized your entire inventory into the above, it will be easier to create an overall strategy instead of doing it per item.

For example, you can make a rule to have at least two weeks’ worth of stock for items in Category A at all times and just down to a week for items in Category B. 

If you want to improve your buying strategy, you can also focus on Group A to unlock the biggest benefits for your business.

Obviously, there are limits to this system. One: it can oversimplify how your entire inventory works. While ABC Analysis is simple to do, it might not really take into account the complexities of your business and your relationship with your customers. 

Another thing is that it isn’t as reactive. By basing off historical data and being quite simple, it has minimal applications in predicting demand or spotting any changes in demand you might need to respond to (for example, a spike in demand for all-season tires after a regulatory change). 

Use Technology

Here at AI Parts, we are building one platform to help you manage your inventory particularly your process of sourcing auto parts.

TechPro taps into the expertise of mechanics and uses AI to create a system that will help auto repair shops choose the best supplier and the best car parts on the market in terms of quality, reliability, compatibility, and value. By being open to using this kind of technology, your auto repair shop can minimize purchasing headaches from unreliable suppliers. 

So there you have it. Inventory management is one of those necessary business processes where success will be determined by strategy and the discipline to follow-through with the process over a long period of time.

If you have strong inventory management, you don’t only take care of the assets of your business, you are also making it more comfortable and safe to increase your auto repair shop’s working capital. 

Warehouse Operations and Speed Up Communications

Are you interested in speeding up operations and communications between repair shop and warehouse, technicians and departments?

SaidText customer service app is the tool, leveraging AI, that can transcribe voice messages and organize everything as Kanban’s tickets. Keeping history, filters, search, notification and a lot of useful functions, operations speed can increase up to 80%.

Here at AI Parts we are constantly improving our tools with just one focus: quicker and simper operations, better workflow, less human effort.

7 EASY TIPS to Improve Your Car Shop Now

There is a lot of advice going around online on how car shop owners can improve their customer’s experience. But a lot of them require a lot of time, effort, and investment to implement. 

That’s why on this list, we focus on the simplest and cheapest things you can do.

During these uncertain times, a lot of businesses are struggling to cope with new realities. The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way people use and interact with their vehicles. 

It will take time before everyone really figures out how the pandemic will affect businesses like auto repair shops and garages but many are highly optimistic.

With an already visible decline in car purchases, people are keeping their cars for longer thus requiring more maintenance.

But whatever the case may be, improving your car repair shop should be a year-long effort. And here, we help you with the simplest things you can do for your shop.

1. Be Upfront About Your Policy on Honesty!

Customers usually have a burning question in their head but they are too embarrassed to ask: am I being overcharged?

It’s a negative customer perception that, unless every car shop in your country shapes up, will be a hard one for you to change on your own.

The next best thing you can do is be upfront about your car shop’s policy on honesty. 

You can do this by drafting a short statement that you can put on your wall, customer sign-up sheet, or even on your receipt. 

Guarantee the quality of your service but more importantly, promise that you will make sure they don’t have to pay for something more than necessary… unless they want to. 

It’s a simple acknowledgement that a stigma exists, and a strong message to your customers that their worries would not be a problem here.

Just be 100% ready to back to back-up your claims!

2. Guarantee Your Work!

Be upfront about offering guarantees and warranty periods for customers.

While this can be hard to put in writing on the walls just like in the previous tip, lead the conversation about guaranteeing the work when talking with a client. Don’t wait for them to ask for it.

This gives you an air of confidence about your workmanship and lets customers know you are willing to take the gamble of losing money on your own work.

But before you start sounding arrogant, make sure the customer also knows you are doing it out of care.

Offer it because you want to calm any worries the customer might have about the service they are availing from your shop.

After all, a well-managed auto shop has one goal: provide excellent, reliable, and efficient service to every customer. 

3. Improve Mechanic Performance

A car garage isn’t built for relaxing but it shouldn’t be unpleasant to stay in either. 

Visit the car garage and check if the mechanics have a clean, cool, and comfortable workspace. Add fans if needed. Check that they have quick access to drinking water and provide snacks every once in a while to thank them for their hard work. Make it a habit to say thank you.

People who are appreciated on the job and feel taken care of are known for performing well, especially in challenging jobs like this one. Providing them with a comfortable workspace, an avenue for them to raise issues, and acknowledging hard work are all important building blocks of a great team.

Another way you can improve mechanic performance is by investing in trainings. They don’t have to be about their jobs. You may have them trained on customer care, work safety, or effective team communications. These can give them new skills that will ultimately benefit your business. 

4. Offer Deal and Promos

and make sure they are useful to customers. The best way you can do this is to check for the most common services customers avail of together and build packages. 

Another old trick is to offer new customers a non-expiring discount on their next visit. This should be enough to bring them back once they need additional work done. You can also put non-obtrusive stickers on the dashboard that will help remind drivers when their next maintenance schedule could be at your car shop.

Another great idea is a simple referral program. For example, if someone brings a buddy for an oil change, they both get 50% off labor costs. 

5. Provide Good Loyalty Rewards

Give customers a highly competitive reward system for being repeat customers of your shop. For example, a customer can get huge discounts on their fourth or fifth oil change or they can even be offered free services like tire rotation. 

These show you appreciate loyalty with useful offers. 

6. Start a Blog, a Social Media Page or a Newsletter

People appreciate sound car advice from experts. And as a car repair shop, that’s exactly what you are.

It’s easier now more than ever to build a Facebook page and manage it on your own. On there, you can post short advice for customers (you can do it once day), let customers follow you for shop updates, announce special offers, and you can even ask for reviews from your customers.

The best thing about having a Facebook page is that it’s very friendly with Google. Fill it with your exact details (address, phone numbers, etc) and you will be making your car shop faster to find.

Are online reviews important?

Absolutely. In one survey, 90% of consumers checked businesses online for reviews. This proof in the quality of service can be so convincing that it can help customers choose your shop over their other options.  The more reviews you have, the more likely you will end up as a top result on Google search.

With a younger crowd expected to become the biggest customer base for car maintenance, some online presence is a must.

Newsletters can be a bit more challenging. You can start building it by collecting the e-mail addresses of your customers. Remember that e-mail gives you a more direct access to your customers so use it sparingly and wisely.

Newsletters that are sent once or twice a month are common. Despite the widespread use of social media, e-mail is still the best way to announce new products or deals.

7. Be Part of Your Community 

A thing about car shops is that they often become landmarks in the community. Car shop owners should use this special advantage. 

Let your car shop join events in your community. If you have the budget, you can even sponsor some community programs like sports teams or events. 

You can also build relationships with community leaders, hold small events at your shop (like short seminars on DIY car care) and other stuff.

It also builds a network that can be HUUUUGE!

Neighbors can refer their siblings, cousins, uncles and other relatives to your shop. You’ll be the first on everyone’s list if any opportunity arrives. It’s just great practice for any local business to build a relationship with their community. 

Bonus: Get smart with AI-powered inventory!

One of the best things about AI Parts is its ability to lead you to the right replacement parts for your vehicle.

A major pain point in this industry is the waiting time customers experience when a car part isn’t readily available or if they experience compatibility issues after they drive out of your shop. 

The AI Parts’ Techpro dashboard does all the work for you. Using artificial intelligence and machine learning, it consolidates the experience of other car shops, expert mechanics, and other data points to help you choose the most reliable and the greatest value spare parts brand and supplier on one simple and intuitive platform!


These are some very simple ideas to get you started on improving your car shop and many of them can be done quickly.

For example, setting up a Facebook page will barely take an hour and posting on it daily shouldn’t take 20 minutes of your day. Printing out an honesty statement shouldn’t be too hard either and making your garage more comfortable can be as simple as installing new fans or a water cooler. 

As long as there are cars on the road, auto repair shops/car service shops will never run out of new customers to serve. To improve your business, the experience of your customers, and your shop’s performance, take a long hard look at this list, get excited, and get to work!

Cutting Down Pain Points – How AI Parts Can Help Improve the Customer Experience at Your Auto Repair Shop

A survey by McKinsey showed that more customers value their car aftersales experience more than their experience in buying a car. 

This means they pay more attention to what it is really like after they’ve bought their car. 

This includes dealing with aftersales support and the repair and maintenance experience from car repair shops.

On this post, we look into how the Tecphro dashboard from AI Parts can improve customer experience and relationships in the auto repair industry. 

In this industry, trust is important, and AI Parts’ groundbreaking technology can help car shop owners earn more of that.

Built-in Disadvantage

In terms of customer experience, the auto repair industry is at a disadvantage. 

From the get-go, it is already associated with a negative experience. 

It has become such a universal fact that terms like “auto anxiety” or “car repair anxiety” are regular topics in car forums and everyone knows exactly what these phrases mean. 

For emergency repairs, there is a fear of just how much the bill will be at the end.

Customers feel they are held hostage by two options: pay-up or ruin your car. 

They also feel like they have to pay more after buying a car just to use it.

There is also a huge distrust between drivers and car mechanics. This isn’t even because of a bad experience. It’s just because there’s a huge opportunity for misunderstanding.

Customers typically don’t have sufficient knowledge on how a car works yet they’re expected to trust someone that can potentially make more money than necessary.

A Shift in Customers Create Opportunity

Auto shop owners however have the opportunity to reinvent the customer experience. 

This comes from the changing demographic of who is coming in to have their car checked or repaired. 

As the millennial generation grows up, they are starting to occupy a bigger part of the market.

In a study by MIT, despite the popularization of alternative transport modes, it was discovered that millennials actually have greater car use than previous generations. 

This means as the transition happens, car shop owners have a brand new set of customer behaviors they can tap into for better results.

This is were the AI Parts’ dashboard Techpro comes in. Aside from improving the overall inventory and parts ordering system of any car shop, the AI Parts ecosystem is also a great example of upgrading services in a way the end customers will feel.

1. Fewer Errors

Techpro is a machine-learning platform. What this means is that the information it provides is not static. It is designed to be smarter and better with further use. 

At any given time, the feedback it provides will be as accurate as possible based on the available data. This protects your car shop from errors. 

The preventive maintenance solutions also give mechanics an idea of where to look first. The preventive maintenance model could point at which parts are nearest the end of their service life.

This hastens the search for possible causes of car issues and provides another layer of direction for the mechanic. 

2. Minimize Surprise Big Spends

One of the biggest features of AI Parts software is its preventive maintenance tool. 

Using AI, the software uses advanced modeling and a lot of data to predict the service lifespan of car parts. 

Drivers will have access to the sort of technology that can closely manage and customize car maintenance programs. They will know exactly when they should have the car serviced.

This helps drivers understand the importance of preventive maintenance and it helps shield them from big, preventable events that will otherwise happen without predictive maintenance. 

3. Provide Data-Based Maintenance Programs

As with the previous item, car shop managers and mechanics can use the same preventive maintenance tool to help provide actionable and data-driven advice to customers. 

Growing up with nearly unlimited access to information, millennial customers take data seriously. Forbes calls millennials the “most data-driven generation”. 

With Techpro, auto shops can start providing data and present graphs. This will help them explain maintenance needs in a more specific way. 

Modeling systems by AI Parts takes some of the mystery out and helps owners understand the importance of maintenance activities for the reliability and service life of their vehicles. 

4. A Service Relationship Strengthened by Data

With the entire AI Parts ecosystem, it’s easier for car shops to build a relationship with their clients. 

Instead of one-off visits, the platform can be used to work out a more proactive maintenance schedule with customers. 

The preventive maintenance tool makes scheduling more personalized for each customer instead of the traditional one-size-fits-all method.

Instead of arbitrary dates, mechanics and car owners can use our tools to create responsive maintenance schedules.  

This helps car shops improve their relationship with customers and increase loyalty in the very competitive aftermarket car sales service.  

5. Predict Service Needs of Customers

Service needs prediction also works through preventive maintenance tools. 

If linked with the Techpro system, it will be easy for car shop owners to gauge the changing demands of customers. 

For example, it will be easy to spot a potential rise in demand for batteries, replacement headlights, or brake pads on a week-by-week basis.

This helps auto shops prepare in terms of manpower skills, tools, and inventory to ensure it is able to service all customers. This cuts wait times and improve the overall experience of customers. 

This also minimizes lost business due to unavailable parts. 

6. Smarter Inventories Means Less Waiting Times for Clients, a Faster Moving Inventory

Techpro provides auto repair shops with powerful software that can model and predict demand for car parts. With it, shops will be able to stock up on the most in-demand car parts

This also shrinks the chance of investing in inventory that might not be desirable after all. 

The platform uses machine learning and artificial intelligence to merge expert mechanic opinion, experience, and other data to assess the reliability and compatibility of every spare part. 

With Techpro, auto repair shops will avoid purchasing incompatible or low-quality parts. The platform aggregates the experience of other auto repair shops. Suppliers with fast delivery times, high-quality parts, and good customer service are easily identifiable on the Techpro dashboard.

These issues, common for many car shops, will extend waiting times for customers and will have negative consequences on customer retention.

These are just some examples of how the AI Parts product ecosystem can help the auto repair shops. 

For the past few years, the proliferation of AI and machine learning technologies in the automotive industry has multiplied. Yet, car maintenance and auto repair services remain untouched by the technology despite the unique opportunities they present for predictive maintenance and inventory management solutions. 

With widespread use, the platform can also have the potential to impact the manufacturing sector providing it with on-the-ground insight on consumer demand. All of this contributes to an aftermarket experience for customers that is far beyond what is available today. 


How 5G Can Accelerate the Use of AI

By now, everyone in the tech world has heard about the impending takeover of the fifth generation technology in mobile networks, or 5G. 

5G has come but its spread will be slow.

Right now, it is only available in a few cities in the world, far too few to really make an impact and show off its potential. But despite this, the technology has provided sufficient proof that it can and it will work at the speeds it has promised. 

Unlike 4G which focuses on high-speed uploads and downloads, 5G has features that make it ideal for more: the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, and the future of computing. 

AI Parts is bringing the best in AI to the automotive aftermarket service and sales industry. Our patented platform, which will rely heavily on neural networks to make predictive maintenance available to more people, sees the importance of 5G for the future of AI.

On this article, we look into how high-speed mobile networks and virtually zero latency can impact the future of AI.

Perfect for IoT

A big problem with IoT is the number of devices that will require connections to the network.

In one square kilometer area, 4G will work for up to 4,000 devices. For context, the city of Mumbai has 28,508 people per square kilometer. New York has over 10,000 people within the same area.

Even with current consumer demand, there is just isn’t enough space to advance IoT implementation.

The threat of a “capacity crunch” is one of the major reasons telco providers have been looking forward to 5G rollouts. Even before the rollout of 4G networks, projections already saw the limitations of 4G technology to handle growing demand.

By utilizing wavelengths with frequency over ten times that of 4G, 5G is capable of handling up to a million unique devices within one square kilometer.

With no shortage of connections, the technology creates the ideal backbone for the Internet of Things.

More sensors for air quality, traffic, noise, earthquakes, etc. can fit in cities without much threat to the capacity of 5G nodes.

The technology’s capacity can help IoT change the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

These fields require and can easily process vast amounts of data. With IoT, data fields will be filled, helping AI applications model the world with greater accuracy. This means better results.

IoT will provide a level of resolution to data never seen before. As the world shifts to IoT, the data fields AI applications will have access to will unlock some amazing benefits. 

Yet, a challenge exists.

Cities and urban hotspots will probably be the first (and maybe only) spots to enjoy the technology as the higher frequency 5G has a very short range. 

High band 5G which makes gigabit download speeds possible, has a maximum range of about half a kilometre in real-world tests. It is very susceptible to physical interference like trees or even glass windows can block the signal.

This means hardware investments will be expensive (access points can only cover a very small area) and the low density in rural areas can limit viability.

Samsung Galaxy Fold anchored to a 5G signal

Powerful Data Streams

Higher frequency 5G means more waves per second. And since data rides waves, it’s expected that 5G will be faster than 4G.

In a real-world test by CNET, they were able to download 10 hours of 4K resolution videos in just five minutes.

Download speeds on a street in Chicago reached over 1Gbps at peak. The uploads, as expected, remained within 4G territory but telcos are saying that could be improved. 

AI, which is usually done on the cloud, can benefit greatly from ultra-high upload and download speeds. 

Devices can send more data in less time and cloud software can provide feedback in volume. Compression becomes unnecessary.

A use case will be self-driving cars. These vehicles can potentially off-load some of the computing to the cloud. The amount of data generated by LiDars, cameras, and other sensors should be comfortable within the capability of 5G.

Real-time Response

One major advantage of 5G is in latency, or how fast it can transmit and receive a response.

Photo from Samsung

Current 4G technology has a latency of around 50ms while 5G, in theory, can have as little as 1ms delay. That is 150 times faster than a blink of an eye.

This ultra-low response time carries a huge impact on lifesaving applications.

In October 2019, IBM and Samsung announced a partnership that will take full use of low-latency 5G connections in high-stress situations. 

Pairing IBM Watson with Samsung’s 5G-enabled devices and wearables, the two companies built an enterprise platform for applications where fast response times can mean life or death.

5G In Action

Their platform has been trialed by police forces and it uses Samsung’s own smartwatch to continuously stream vitals. The same technology can be used by firefighters, soldiers, and other frontline workers.

Vitals collected by wearables are streamed to an off-site mission control. This lets leadership make key decisions in real-time and react to cues from AI with great speed.

This platform can similarly be applied to industries like mining, manufacturing, and construction.

Data can be uploaded to AI on a cloud, processed, and sent back faster than before.

This technology will also find use cases in industries such as finance, energy, healthcare and even retail. 

Edge Computing and 5G 

One other thing that 5G is strangely unleashing is edge computing.

Edge computing is when advanced processes like AI and machine learning are done on devices themselves, decreasing dependency on the cloud.

Common examples are on-device/offline speech input and on-device AR applications.

As manufacturers like Samsung and Qualcomm are pushing boundaries by creating chips compatible with 5G signals, they have also embedded stronger on-board AI processing.

The message is clear: 5G speeds and near zero latency will not be replacing raw, on-device computing power.

While 5G is seen to free consumers from the limits of 4G, it has also acknowledged that it can quickly become limited. As more and more consumer AI applications are built, demand for bandwidht will grow and eventually outpace the capabilities of 5G.

With this in mind, the push to make the calculations closer to where the data will be used – such as phones, cameras, computers – makes more sense.

As AI also become important in applications where they can’t fail, edge computing can help developers become more selective.

For example, an autonomous vehicle will need to process and understand hazards detected by sensors.

If it needs to transmit data and wait for it to be sent back, it might be too late before it automatically hits the brakes. And with the limited reach of 5G, what if it loses its connection?

For many industry experts, the symbiosis formed by edge computing and 5G will mean exponentials gains to the system.

“Simpler” AI tasks can be done on the device itself. Feedback can be provided immediately even when the data connection fails.

Creates a Smoother Transition

Edge computing is also seen as a way to smooth out the transition from 4G to 5G.

Powerful, on-board processing or edge computing, will slowly wean off some of the demand from 4G technologies while already showing off some 5G features such as powerful “cloud-like” computing.

A simple example would be augmented reality. Present edge computing can already provide a compelling experience. When 5G comes into the future, it can further enhance the familiar AR experience.

And when 5G reaches maturity, edge computing can help limit data transfers only for the most necessary cases. 

A Mutual Relationship 

It’s time to switch things around. So if 5G has the potential to expand the impact of AI in our lives, how can AI impact 5G?

Telco companies worldwide are already using AI to manage their networks. With the slow but steady expansion of 5G, customer expectations and industry commitments made are on the rise.

According to Ericsson, a leading provider of infrastructure devices says that up to 53% of providers will have AI systems manage their networks. 

A Growing Capacity for AI

5G solves many of the limitations AI and IoT for accelerated scaling. Its impact on AI technology will be greater than any of the previous technologies that came before it.

The timing couldn’t be more ideal as innovators like us here at AI Parts are unlocking the potential of the technology in the aftermarket automotive sales industry.

As 5G signals cover more areas around the world, so will further rise the use of artificial intelligence.

10 Most Commonly Replaced Parts of Any Vehicle

Cars are incredible machines and with every new model that comes into the market, drivers are treated to a new set of innovations.

In building cars, specific parts were designed to take a beating.

These parts were designed to handle a lot of wear and take the brunt of the many stresses experienced by cars.

The good thing is that these parts were also designed to be replaced. They are simple to take out and the car aftersales market provides car owners with many options for whatever budget.

In fact, there are so many options out there that it can be very hard to choose.

This is why the Techpro dashboard integrates product pages for spare parts.

On the platform, car parts from different suppliers are rated for compatibility and reliability against price.

With the thousands of spare parts available, the platform will also use advanced software to match the correct parts with the correct models and flag potential compatibility issues before they can happen.

This list is for every driver who wants to be educated about parts they will be replacing. Car ownership can, at times, be very daunting and knowing these parts beforehand will simplify things in the future.

1. Oil Filters

The oil filter is a membrane that ensures the oil that circulates around the engine is free from solid impurities. It uses pressure from the running engine to push oil through folds in the membrane as shown in the photo above.

The oil filter is replaced during an oil change. Since this was designed to be disposable, oil filters are some of the cheapest car parts in the market despite its very important job.

Timely replacement of engine oil and filter will prevent expensive repairs for engine trouble.

2. Spark Plugs

Photo from: Aidan Wojtas / CC BY-SA

The tip of the spark plug ignites the small explosions that run engines.

Spark plugs break down with use and they can become less effective. This results in fuel waste. Bad spark plugs can mean noisier engines, less power when accelerating, and up to 30% drop in mileage and efficiency.

In most cases, new spark plugs should be installed at around 30,000 miles (48,000 kilometers) but this number can vary due to driving conditions and car models.

Just like the oil filters, these parts are cheap to replace.

3. Battery

Car batteries have a set lifespan and that’s usually between three and five years.

A broken-down car battery is one of the most common reasons for stalled vehicles.

A car’s battery provides power during start-up and supplies a stable current to more sensitive car electronics. When the engine runs, it also generates power to charge the battery through the alternator.

Batteries will definitely be an item on AI Parts’ future dashboard for preventive maintenance.

For now, the team has created a simple predictive maintenance widget to help drivers check when their batteries might give in. You can try it out by clicking the link here.

4. Lights

Laws were made to make sure every driver takes care of their lights and for good reason.

Car lights keep the driver safe. Headlights make it possible to drive in relative darkness and indicator lights keep the vehicle highly visible at night, in heavy rain, snow, or fog.

An average car can have more than fifteen outdoor lights and it’s likely for a few of them to blow out during its lifetime.

Fortunately, they’re cheap and easy to replace. Manuals will list down the specifications of compatible lights.

To keep things safe, make it a habit to check car lights before leaving your parking area especially before long drives. Discovering busted lights while on the road can be very stressful.

5. Belts

This isn’t about seatbelts.

These belts are found inside the hood of cars. They are used to transfer kinetic energy between components of your engine and are usually made of rubber. Through time, these belts can slip, become loose, or even snap.

It’s a bit tougher to know when belts must be replaced. Manufacturers usually do not specify their lifespans.

The best thing you can do is to make sure your mechanic checks the belts during your visits. Cracks and missing threading are some of the usual signs it is time for new ones. They can also be the source of weird engine sounds.

6. Engine Air Filter

The engine air filter makes sure that the air required by the engine during combustion is free of dust or debris.

Just like most car parts, there are many factors that can affect the lifetime of car filters.

Checking the installed air filter is an easy thing to do. Just consult the manual and you’ll find instructions on how to do this. If the filter is filled with dark, dusty spots, it’s probably time for a replacement.

7. Alternator

The alternator is a component that manages the charge and discharge of the battery.

When the engine is generating power, the alternator works to charge the battery. When the engine isn’t, it uses the stored power to run onboard electronics.

Alternators are considered a major expense worth a few hundred dollars and they’re a common replacement.

Don’t worry just yet. While a faulty alternator is a common problem, most can last for a few hundred thousand kilometres before giving out.

8. Fuses

Car fuses were designed to fail. They protect car electronics by “breaking” when too much current flows through their calibrated conductors.

While they seem easy to replace, don’t do it.

A busted fuse is usually a sign of a bigger problem within the car electronics. It is best to have a mechanic or car electrician check the wiring of the vehicle before the fuse is replaced and the power is restored. In some cases, it really could just be a broken fuse.

9. Brake Pads

These pads undergo a lot of stress. After all, they use friction to “grind cars to a screeching halt”. Eventually, they will have to be replaced.

A broken down brake pad can damage the mount which is a much more expensive job.

It is wise to replace brake pads as soon as they show any signs of damage. Grinding noises when braking or squealing and screeching are the most obvious symptoms. The pads shouldn’t be less than a quarter-inch thick.

Never run a car with a faulty brake pad. To help you plan when to replace your brake pads, you can try out the AI Parts Preventive Maintenance Widget here which also works for batteries.

10. Wiper Blades

These wiper blades are made of rubber and with constant exposure to water, heat, and cold, they tend to breakdown quite quickly.

They’re important to replace because busted wipers can scratch glass.

This can leave unsightly permanent scratches on the windshield.

Worn down wipers also mean bad visibility during rain. Just like other replaceable car parts, there are many original and third-party options in the market so its cheaper than ever to grab a replacement set.

Efficiency and Reliability

It is the car owner’s responsibility to maintain a car that is safe, reliable and efficient to use.

These ten most replaceable parts must be familiar to any car owner and driver. Most likely, you’ll spend for a few of them over the lifetime of your vehicle.

If you want, you can print out this blog post and bring it with you on your next maintenance and request your trusty mechanic to check each part with you.

Car Ownership, Public Transport, Working from Home – How the Pandemic Will Change the Way We Move

You will read it everywhere. This pandemic will change the way we live. But what will these changes look like?

In this post, we explore how the pandemic will change our relationship with cars and transport.  

Before this year, waking up and driving to work was a mundane ritual for billions. In just a few weeks since COVID-19’s first case, public spaces shuttered. These rituals became obsolete.

What does it all mean for cars stuck on “park” both at home and at dealerships? What does this mean for trains and buses suspending services or running with just a fraction of passengers?


Derailed Q3 and Q4

There is a bleak consensus among experts— the automotive industry will take a massive hit.

IHS Markit projects a shattering 22% decline in sales for the rest of 2020. This equates to just about 69.6 million units sold, almost 20 million fewer than the previous year. 

The world is bracing for a recession expected to hit harder than 2008-2009. Buyer confidence is low and purse strings are tied in preparation for what is still an uncertain future. 


One Family, One Car

A side effect of this pandemic will be the decreased desirability of households with two or more cars.

With many companies adopting permanent or semi-permanent work-from-home schemes, an entire family can now share just one car. This can further dampen demand especially in the UK and the US where multiple car ownership is common.


Car Ownership to Become Essential

In March 2020, carpooling services from Lyft and Uber were suspended. Scoop, a carpool service professionals, has also imposed a limit of two passengers per trip. This further curbs even more exclusive options for non-car owners. 

For some experts, the slump in demand will be jolted by a small but valuable spike. The drop in confidence for the safety of mass transportation can make private car ownership essential for more consumers.

This small spike in automobile demand has been seen in China. The country is the world’s largest automobile market and is also origin of the virus. It is the first to settle into life after the pandemic.

In an Ipsos survey, non-car owners in China are the most motivated to make the purchase right now. It’s easy to imagine similar sentiments in other regions globally. 

While this bump won’t be enough to revive losses from the pandemic, it gives some hope as factories begin to open. 


Essential Maintenance on the Rise

While vehicle purchases are indefinitely postponed, essential vehicle maintenance is expected to rise. Car owners will be wanting to extend the service lives of their vehicles as a cost saving measure against the purchase of a new car. It can also safeguard from potentially expensive breakdowns.

On this blog, we’ve discussed the potential of car maintenance in increasing vehicle efficiency and service life. We’ve also tackled proper car care during the quarantine period. 

At this time, car shop owners must strategise how to open their businesses and how the pandemic can permanently affect their capacity and practices.

AI Parts’ Techpro dashboard for car shop owners is uniquely positioned to assist during this time. Using a purely digital dashboard and a predictive maintenance system, Techpro can lessen human-to-human contact. The dashboard also gives car owners access to an AI-powered preventive maintenance tool.  


Public Transport 

In China, it was observed that a bus passenger can infect a fellow commuter sitting 4.5 meters away. In New York, 123 employees of the public transport authority has died from the virus.

These are stark examples of just how dangerous public transportation can be. The virus poses a real threat to passengers and employees who run public transport systems in densely populated cities.

For UK bus rental startup Zeelo, some routes will disappear. Low-volume routes will become obsolete. Restrictive passenger limits will also challenge pricing and sustainability of mass transport systems. 

John Johnson, Chairman of the trade association representing London buses CPT, told Load Star: 

“Coach operators are facing a real struggle if something isn’t done to arrest the drop in passenger confidence. Companies and schools need to seize the opportunity to provide safe transportation with an existing fleet which already serves the UK well.”

– John Johnson, Chairman of the trade association representing London buses CPT, to Loadstar

In Japan where the railway system is the backbone of the economy, corporate measures such as staggered work hours, business closures, and public fear have reduced ridership by up to 30%. 

Above: A photo of a Japanese train attendant before the pandemic.

These observations forecast an ominous future for public transportation. Calls to suspend expansion projects are being made and ticket spend for the average commuter are expected to rise. 

An expected volume of passengers precedes the huge investments made in public transportation. For example, trains are expensive to build and maintain but they make economic sense due to their efficiency and scale. What will happen to them once ridership shrinks permanently?


Safety and/or Privacy

One of the best ways cities can control the spread of COVID-19 is through contact tracing. This is identifying everyone who has been in contact with a confirmed case so they can be isolated and tested.

Amnesty International has singled out some of the extreme ways China’s innovation allows for heightened contact tracing. 

The Close Contact Detector, developed by a government-backed company, can track a person’s location within three rows inside a train car, bus, or plan. 

AliPay has also launched a color-coding scheme for users and their “health status”. The platform uses vast amounts of data and AI to make predictions about each person’s likelihood of contracting COVID-19. 

The AliPay app is now used to control entry in high-volume locations like train stations, requiring millions to subscribe to the service. 

On our LinkedIn page, we also shared an AI platform that uses machine vision for cameras in public spaces to enforce social distancing. 

While these technologies might have yielded positive results against COVID-19, they provide a glimpse to a future where commuters will need to give up a lot of data to participate in mass transport system. The same rules may apply to mass gatherings, offices, schools, etc. 


Logistics Boom 

The logistics sector could see unprecedented levels of growth. This was evident when Amazon offered to hire an additional 75,000 in the US and 50,000 in India to meet a demand spike triggered by the pandemic. Instacart, a US shopping service, offered jobs for 250,000 people.

This can trigger investment in fleets for urban logistics. While the growth of online shopping has been aggressive in the past few years, COVID-19 has caused demnad to spiral out of control and companies are struggling to meet demands.

Small to mid-size delivery vans and other commercial vehicles for urban logistics have become essential vehicles. Smarter integration with fulfillment centers will be a huge feature to have. 


Disappearing Drivers

The pandemic also renewed interest in self-driving vehicles.

By not requiring human drivers, autonomous vehicles reduces human-to-human contact and protect the vulnerable workers in sectors like logistics.

Baidu’s Apollo is a slow-moving vehicle originally designed for transport of light goods. Now, 104 of these high-tech buggies has been deployed in different parts of China  to help frontliners transport and receive hospital supplies. 

image from Cruise

In the US, Cruise has used self-driving technology to deliver food to senior homes in San Francisco. Their modified General Motors EVs  were accompanied by safety drivers in PPEs during their routes. 

Self-driving buggies in Hong Kong are automatically disinfecting high-traffic areas in the airport.


Obliged to Innovate

It’s a terrifying time for every industry. The pandemic has floored the brakes on almost every business from around the world.

As the medical community rushes to control the virus’ spread, businesses who can adapt to a different future will have greater chances of surviving.

While the outlook is bleak, the automotive industry is thrust into an unknown territory. It will have to change its focus to meet the demands of a post-COVID-19 world. It is now challenged to solve mass transit problems and it will face new questions about safety and security of its passengers.

Cars will remain important after the pandemic, but for different reasons.